Working in terracotta, I find myself using my hands at first. If I am fortunate, the clay embraces me and the figure invites me in. Next, I use large and small sculpting tools. Some of these tools are older than I am. Working in steel, my tools of choice: a propane forge; a large coal forge; a two-and-a-half pound and a five-pound sledgehammer; a wire-fed welder; a four-and-one-half-inch grinder; an eighty-five-pound horseshoeing anvil that I used for forty years as a farrier; and a three-hundred-and-fifty-pound blacksmith anvil.


Most of the time, bronze is the finished product of my works in terra cotta and steel.